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Are our children learning? Uwezo learning assessment in refugee contexts in Uganda

Despite significant differences in education inputs between schools inside and outside refugee settlements, learning outcomes are low among children in both places. Over 90% of pupils in P3 cannot read, comprehend and divide at P2 level.

Similarly, 1 out of 4 children in P3 – P7 inside (21%) and outside (28%) settlements can read, comprehend and divide at P2 level.

Despite comparable performance within and outside refugee settlements, in some areas children in the settlements perform better. In Adjumani, all refugee children can read, comprehend and divide by the time they reach P7 compared to 87% of children in P7 outside refugee settlements. In Isingiro, 4 out of 10 children (42%) in P5 in refugee settlements have P2 literacy and numeracy skills compared to fewer than 3 out of 10 (27%) P5 pupils outside settlements.

These findings are released to mark World Refugee Day by Uwezo Uganda at Twaweza. The data were collected by Uwezo, a citizen-led assessment of learning outcomes in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. These data are from the seventh Uwezo assessment that was carried out in October 2017. The data were collected through an Uwezo assessment in the four districts with the highest population of refugees in 2016: Adjumani, Isingiro (Nakivale), Yumbe and Arua.

The data also show that Somali pupils in P3 – P7 (65%) living in settlements in Uganda are much more likely to be able to read, comprehend and divide than Ugandan children (27%). In addition, refugee children who have been in Uganda for over one year are more likely to have P2 literacy and numeracy skills than those who have been here for less than a year.

In terms of services, the situation is more varied. Although boreholes are a source of water for many in refugee settlements (36%) and outside (45%), more refugees have piped water into their dwelling (35%) than those outside the settlements (13%). Although solar is the main source of lighting for both groups, more refugees use it (66%) than those outside the settlements (40%).

However, refugees are vulnerable when it comes to food and housing: in all the districts surveyed, only 7% of refugees (compared to 34% of non-refugees) eat three or more meals per day. The majority (77%) of those living in refugee settlements have dwellings made out of mud/stick/polythene. This can be contrasted to 6 out of 10 (61%) of those living outside of settlements who have houses made out of brick or stone.

And in terms of school conditions, refugee children face severe disadvantages. Inside refugee settlements, there are higher pupil to classroom ratios with two or three times as many refugee children per classroom as their peers outside the settlements (e.g. in Arua 350:1 compared to 127:1, in Adjumani 139:1 and 85:1). There are higher pupil to textbook ratios inside settlements, with refugee children in the four districts sharing one textbook between 27 to 111 children compared to non-refugee children sharing one textbook between 1 to 4 children. And there are many more pupils per teacher inside refugee settlements: in Isingiro there are 83 pupils per teacher inside settlements compared to 28 per teacher outside. In Arua, there are 190 pupils per teacher inside settlements compared to 78 per teacher outside.

However, the picture is more even when it comes to facilities. Children inside and outside settlements are equally likely to have to sit on the floor (28% do in settlements and 30% do outside); to have exercise books (93% inside, 100% outside) and have pens or pencils (88% inside and 93% outside).

This pilot was funded through the Humanitarian Emergency Refugee Response in Uganda (HERRU), UK's Department for International Development (DFID), Uganda.

 

Read more: annual learning assessment learning outcomes Uwezo Uganda

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